EGD stands for Esophagogastroduodenoscopy which is a diagnostic test used to observe the lining of esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.It is also used in treatment required for these organs. In EGD, a small endoscope is passed down the mouth into pharynx, esophagus, stomach and then duodenum.In more advanced forms, it can also be introduced through the nose.In latest models, a video chip can also be attached to the endoscope for better results. If you suffer from chronic heartburn, regurgitation of food, difficulty on swallowing, incomprehensible weight loss or anemia or any symptoms of the sort and you are not responding to the treatment then the next step that comes into a doctor’s mind is for you to undergo is EGD.
EGD is utilized for the following purposes under the below-mentioned conditions.
|Cancer like conditions|
|Noncardiac chest pain|
|Recovery of foreign bodies|
|To dilate stricture|
EGD is unadvisable in the following conditions
- Unwilling patients
- Medically unstable patient
- Head and neck surgery
- Pharyngeal diverticulum
- Anticoagulants used
HOW EGD IS PERFORMED
Normally there is a special room in the hospital for the endoscopy, but according to indications, this procedure can be made in the emergency department, is completed intensive care unit or operation theater. In Asia and Europe carried out by giving local anesthesia to the patient. Whereas, in U.S. this procedure is done under sedation.In patients who are difficult to sedate, general anesthesia is given. Then a small endoscope(tube with light source and camera attached) is passed into pharynx, oesophagus, stomach and duodenum.The oesophagus is a muscular tube-like organ which connects the throat to the stomach which is connected to the duodenum.Duodenum is the upper part of small intestine.The endoscope can be inserted in through the mouth or nose.In latest models, a video chip can also be attached to the endoscope so it can record video of whatever we see through the endoscope during the procedure.This proves more useful as we can refer to it later on if required.
The duration of the procedure is from 5-20 min.After the procedure patient will be kept in the recovery room for about half an hour.Avoid driving back home after the procedure because of sedation.Let someone else drive you back home.
The following criteria must be met to undergo this procedure. According to theAmerican Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE), the following conditions must be present to perform EGD,
|1||Staff||The endoscopist and nursing staff should be trained enough to perform the procedure properly.|
|2||Equipment||The equipment must be functional and properly kept for use.|
|3||Cleaning area||Endoscope cleaning must be present.|
|4||Training||Staff must be trained to perform emergency life-saving procedures like BCLS.|
|5||Quality assurance||Quality assurance program must be present to ensure quality procedure done over the periodof time.|
The following complications might arise during the procedure,
- Aspiration of contents of the stomach into the lungs
- Low blood pressure
- Difficulty in breathing
- Infection transfer
- Laryngeal spasm
However, these complications are very rare but care must be taken to avoid them.