Ear, Nose and Throat Doctor
The doctor who treats the diseases of Ear, Nose and Throat doctor is known as Otorhinolaryngologist and the study is known as Otorhinolaryngology. Commonly these doctors are referred to as ENT doctors or ENT specialists. They mainly focus on treatment of diseases of the ear, nose, throat, base of skull ,larynx etc.
Education Required for Ear, Nose and Throat Doctor
After completing Medical School, a residency of 5 years is required to become an otorhinolaryngologist. Out of these five years, 6 months are given to general surgery and the remaining four and half years are focused on ear, nose, throat surgery. After completing the residency, some otorhinolaryngologist completes a year or two years long advanced sub-specialty fellowship.
|S.No.||Title||Education/Degree||Time for training|
|ENT Surgical Residency||5 Years
|3.||ENT Consultant||Advanced sub-speciality Fellowship||2 Years
Sub Specialties of ENT:
There are many sub-specialities of ENT which an Otorhinolaryngologist can join.For this 2 more years are required after the ENT surgical residency.
The sub-specialities are described below.
|1.||Head and Neck Oncologic Surgery
|It deals with the surgical treatment of tumors, benign or malignant in the head and neck region.|
It deals with diagnosis and treatment (medicinal or surgical) of diseases of the ear.
It deals with diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders of the ear.
Rhinology and Sinus Surgery
|It deals with diagnosis and treatment (medicinal or surgical) of a nose and the sinuses.|
|It deals with diagnosis and treatment of diseases in children related to ear, nose, throat.|
Laryngology and Voice Disorders
|It deals with management and treatment of diseases of throat and voice disorders|
Facial plastic and reconstructive surgery
|It deals with surgery of face and neck either functional or for enhanced esthetics.|
It deals with the treatment of sleep disorders.
It deals with the treatment of allergies that are affecting the upper respiratory tract.
The different instruments used in ENT and their functions are as follows,
|S.No.||Name of Instrument||Functions|
Reflected light is produced by head mirror which aids in the examination of cavities of the ear, nose, throat.
Tongue depressor for examination of the oral cavity.
To hold skin.
Used for dissection and retraction.
Used for examination of larynx.
Used in diagnosis or treatment during oesophagoscopy.
For examination of tympanic membranes in case of perforation of honeycombing.
|8||Negus Knot Tyer||
Helps in tying of ligature knot.
|9||Denis brown’s – Tonsil holding forceps||To hold tonsils during tonsillectomy.|
|10||Frer’s Septal Knife||
Used for incision of the mucosa over deviated septum.
Used for incision of the tympanic membrane.
· For nasal polypectomy.
· For taking biopsies from the oropharynx and oral cavity.
· Substitute for tonsil holding forceps.
|13||Posterior rhinoscopy mirror|| To see
· Eustachian tube opening and adenoids.
· Posterior nasal apertures.
· Posterior free part of the nasal septum.
Used in taking biopsies.
|15||Eve’s Tonsillar snare||
Used to crush and cut the lower pedicle of the tonsil.
Used to see the base of the tongue.
|17||Killian’s long bladed nasal speculum||Used in septoplasty.|
|18||Doyen’s mouth gag||
For keeping the mouth open during intraoral surgery.
|19||Jobson’s aural probe||
Used for cleaning ear canal.
Used in Mastoidectomy.
|21||Mallet|| · To open mastoid antrum.
· To remove chips of bone.
Used in Intra-nasal antrostomy.
|23||Thudicam’s nasal speculum||To see the nasal cavity.|
To fix towel, suction tube etc.