Depression Test, There are some days in life when we feel happy and some days when we are sad and depressed. Often this depression stays on for a long time, and our family or we seek some help from a doctor to escape from this depression. The doctor will then give some depression tests to the patient to undergo so he can rule out the problem.
Signs & Symptoms
If at least 5 of the below-mentioned conditions are present for more than two weeks, then it means the patient is suffering from some depressive disorder.
- Loss of interest in activities
- Mood declined
- Loss of sleep
- Weight loss or gain of weight
- Psychomotor agitation
- Decrease in concentration
- Feeling worthless
- Feeling guilty
- Recurrent thoughts of suicide or self-harm
Typically the depression tests that the doctor takes, refers to
- Observation and physical examination
- Blood tests
- Questionnaire based tests
1-Observations and Physical Examination
The patient is observed and physical examination done by the physician. Signs such as loss of weight, a gain of weight, psychomotor agitation, etc. can hint towards a depressive disorder.
Blood tests often rule out depressive disorders. Conditions like Vitamin D Deficiency, Anemia, etc. may cause loss of interest in activities, lethargy, depression, etc.
The most useful tests are the questionnaire type test. Details are given below.
|1||Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS)|| · Developed in 1960
· Mostly used test in inpatients
· This test takes 20-30 min.
· It is a questionnaire type test showing the presence/absence and the severity of the depressive disorder.
· It assesses the below mentioned 21 traits
1. Mood depression
2. Guilty feeling
3. Suicidal thoughts
5. Insomnia – middle
6. Insomnia –late
8. 2Psychomotor retardation
9. Psychic anxiety
10. Psychomotor agitation
11. Somatic anxiety
12. General Somatic symptoms
13. GIT symptoms
14. Genital symptoms
16. Loss of insight
17. Paranoid symptoms
18. Weight loss
19. Diurnal variation
20. Obsession and compulsive symptoms
|2||Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)|| · Developed in 1961 by Aaron Beck
· Mostly used self-rating scale
· It takes 5-10 min to complete the test
· This is also a questionnaire type test where certain behaviors are assessed.
|3||Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)|| · As name indicates, it is questionnaire having two parts,
PHQ-2 and PHQ-9
· PHQ2 estimates the frequency of depression
· PHQ9 shows clinical diagnosis.
|4||Major Depression Inventory (MDI)|| · This is a self-test which is 86-92% sensitive and 82-86% specific
· This is used in the presence of the large depressive disorders.
|5||Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)|| · Formed in 1977
· This is used in Large population surveys
· It consists of 20 items that are then rated.
|6||Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS)|| · Formed in 1965
· Originally known as Self-rating depression scale
· It also consists of 20 items to be rated.
· Scores greater than 50 shows mild depression, higher than 60 moderate depression and greater than 70 severe depression.
|7||Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)|| · This is used for old age patients
· It had 30 items in the beginnings which were reduced to 15 and further reduced to 5 items now.
· It is 94% sensitive and 81% specific
|8||Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD)|| · This is also used in old age patients having impaired cognitive function.
· As this kind of patients can give answers that are not reliable, so questions are asked from someone close to the patient, some family member or friend who stays with the patient almost all the time.