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Ear Doctor Profession Information



Ear Doctor

Otorhinolaryngology too (also known as otolaryngology-head, ear doctor, and neck surgery) is a surgical subcategory of medicine that deals with disorders of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) and other structures of the head and neck. Physicians who get specialized degree in this field are called otorhinolaryngologists, otolaryngologists, ENT physicians,  ENT surgeons, or head and neck surgeons. Patients seek treatment from an otorhinolaryngologist for disorders of the ear, nose, throat, base of the skull, and for the surgical treatment of cancers and benign tumors of the head and neck.

Otolaryngology: Qualification& Training

An ear doctor or otolaryngologist should undergo a completion of the medical school program and then five-year residency program. During the initial year of residency, he/she will learn about emergency medicine, critical care medication, anesthesiology and general surgery and rest of the year, i.e., 2-4 years he will focus purely on otolaryngology.

However, Before initiating actual practice, it is necessary to pass the USMLE, which is the abbreviation of  United States Medical Licensing Examination. Another certification exam which should be considered is the one designed by the American Board of Otolaryngology. Although this is not a mandatory requisite for working and practicing in this field, the other certification/degree will assist in getting the edge when they finally a apply for a job in hospitals or other respected private clinics. This will ensure a huge salary too.

Otolaryngology Sub-Specialties

An otolaryngologist can sub-specialize in various areas like:

  • Head and neck plastic surgery: they specializes in reconstructive measures performed on the head, neck, and face.
  • Pediatric Otolaryngology: It focuses on ear, throat and nose problems in pass patients.
  • Neurotology: This emphasizes on the management of disorders of the ear and temporal bone.
  • Sleep medicine: this focuses on diagnosing and treating ear, nose and throat disorders that interrupt sleep or are caused by the interruption in sleep patterns.

Salary of Otolaryngology & Ear Doctor

The estimated annual salary of an otolaryngologist sales from $194,000 at the secondary end to $516,000 at the upper end. In adjunct to few years of experience, place of practice and geographical locality also influences earning probability. Physicians who practice in private areas tend to earn more than those who practice in other types of services and facilities. In Illinois and Oregon, Otolaryngologists are the highest paid.


The following table explains the estimated proportion of physicians who practice in the field of Otolaryngology in the United States.

Percentage Income
10% 247183 dollars
25 % 295182 dollars
50% 347903 dollars
75% 404737 dollars
90% 456482 dollars

Career Position

According to the statistics in  Bureau of Labor, there is estimated to be a substantial rise in job development for all doctor specialties and surgery in the next few years. Otolaryngologists or ear specialists in specific are predicted to be in high demand because above 35 million American experience sinus related disorders almost each and every year. In addition to that, as the geriatric population continues to rise, there will be a high need and demand for professional physicians who can manage and treat hearing loss and other relative needs of the geriatrics.


Code Blue The Emergency Situation


Code Blue

Code Blue or Colors always play an important part in your life at various events, ages and locations. From childhood, we have been learning and playing with all these colors, and till now most of the companies and firms have adapted their fame through various colors. The blue color is found to be the most acceptable color from all others, and that is the reason that it is associated with many professions to assign a professional term. Same is the case with medical sciences which has adopted various colors for announcements to professional staff. “Code Blue” is a term that is announced in an emergency situation in the hospital when a patient has a cardio-pulmonary arrest. This announcement is to aware the team of healthcare providers, known as the  “code team” to quickly reach the emergency department and begin resuscitation. Often a patient in critical condition does not require CPR as he may have collapsed.In such situations, the doctors fake the CPR or give slow compressions just to show the family members that physicians are trying to save the patient whereas, the patient has already collapsed.This is called “Slow code.”In some countries, it is considered unethical. There are different systems for different emergencies in the hospital. The code is specific for cardio-Pulmonary arrest all over the world, but some call the cardiac arrest in infants as code pink.



Province Nature of emergency code
Canada British Columbia Cardiac Arrest Blue
Ontario Cardiac Arrest-Adult  Blue
Cardiac Arrest-Infant /Child Code Pink
United States   Cardio-Pulmonary arrest Code Blue

Code blue is successful when the patient is revived from cardiopulmonary arrest. In cardio-pulmonary arrest procedures like Basic Cardiac Life Support (BCLS) and Advanced Cardiac Life Support (BCLS) are required. The team continues these processes till the patient is revived.  It is critical to begin resuscitation as soon as possible.Delay may lead to the death of the patient.For this, it is critical that the code team is well versed with the emergency treatment protocols. For this every two years the health care providers must attend a refresher training of BCLS and ACLS otherwise, they are not allowed to perform the procedures mentioned above.

Team consists of following members

S.No. Designation Department
1 Physician Medicine
2 Physician General Surgery
3 Physician Emergency
4 Physician Pediatrics
5 Nurse ICU
6 Nurse Supervisor
7 Therapist Respiratory

One physician in this team is the team leader, and it is mandatory for everyone to follow his orders. The team lead assesses the situation and gives treatment specific orders which the other members follow.

Key Facts:

  • In hospitals 18% of patients survive from cardiac arrest by using the blue protocols whereas, 36% of pediatric patients survive.
  • If code emergencies happen after 11 pm, the survival rate becomes minuscule i.e. less than  15% as compared to if the emergency occurs in the morning time.
  • Quality of CPR has a significant effect on the survival of patient
  • If proper compressions are not given the recovery rate becomes very small.If the depth of compressions is less or the speed of compressions is slow, then the recovery rate falls by 30%.


Pediatric Dentist or Pediatric Information


Pediatric Dentist

“I save smiles! What’s your superpower?”

Pediatric Dentist or a pedodontist is a dentist who specializes in the oral health of children.They can give the required preventive measures and treatment to the children from the day they are born through their adolescent years. The children with special needs having oral health issues are also treated by a Pediatric dentist.

Let us understand by the following FAQ’s

S.No. FAQ’s Description
1 What makes a Pediatric dentist a better option for your child than a general dentist?


Although a general dentist can also treat a child, a pedodontist is well aware of the quick developments your baby is going through and is capable of meeting the desired requirements.

A Pediatric is trained in having an entirely different approach towards the patient.


2 What to expect in a Pediatric dentist’s clinic? 1. Cheerful  Ambiance

The first thing that you notice at a Pediatric dentist’s clinic is the ambiance. The clinic is always colorful with cartoon characters painted on the walls. Mostly the dental chairs are also shaped in the form of animals or cartoon characters. A light, happy music is often playing in the background.

2. Friendly staff

You will always find a friendly staff at a Pedodontist’s clinic that the child always looks up to meeting with. People who do not enjoy working with the kids cannot be successful in this field.

3. Rapport Building

A Pediatric always builds a strong rapport with the child before beginning treatment. In a friendly and relaxing way, an introduction to dental treatment is given.

4. Treatment

A Pedodontist never does vigorous treatment on a child. Small quick appointments are always encouraged so that the child doesn’t get tired.Particular emphasis is given to pain-free treatment.

Children with special needs are also given treatment over here.

5. Gifts

There is always a small size toothbrush and toothpaste for the children at a Pedodontist’s clinic that is given as gifts.This excites the kids, and they focus on brushing the teeth. Some Pediatric dentists often keep small toys also as gifts.


3 How to become a Pedodontist?


After a study of four years and graduating as a dentist, a further study of 2 years is required to become a Pedodontist.


4 How a Pediatric Dentist helps your child in having a bright future?


1. Raising Awareness

A strong emphasis is always given to in raising awareness regarding oral health and prevention of oral disease. Children are taught how to take care of their teeth by brushing them along with flossing and avoiding sweet and sticky food.

2. Early indication

A Pediatric can recognize the first sign of dental problems and prevent the situation to get worse in future e.g.  recognition of orthodontic problems or early evidence of caries.

3. Prophylaxis

Prophylactic treatments like fluoride treatment and cleaning help in preventing dental and gum diseases.

4. Treatment

A  dentist gives treatment to the children for all their dental and oral problems.


So, a Pediatric dentist, in other words, is your child’s best friend, taking care of his oral needs by overcoming his fears and apprehensions of dental treatments and thus promising them a bright future. As they say, dentists are, Making the world a better place, One smile at a time.”


Naturopathic Doctor Information


Naturopathic Doctor

Naturopathic Doctor (“naturopathy”) is a separate classification of primary health care that highlights prevention and the self-healing process through the use of natural therapies.

Career necessities

Degree Level


doctor degree


Degree subject Naturopathic doctor, chiropractic physician, Chinese medicine, acupuncture, medical doctor, osteopathic doctor
Licensure He must get licensed to practice this field by government
Experience 2-5 years


Main skills inspection, listening, problem solving, ability to use medical and therapeutic equipment to diagnose and administer therapeutic treatment
Salary  $73,400 (median salary for all other health diagnosing and treating practitioners) 

Training and Disciplines

  • clinical nutrition
  • Acupuncture
  • Botanical Medicine
  • Asian Medicine
  • Physical Medicine
  • Lifestyle counseling and
  • Homeopathy


Presently Naturopathic Doctors are regulated under the Drugless Practitioners Act, 1990 with the Board of Directors of Drugless Therapy-Naturopathy as the regulator.

Naturopathic Medicine vs. Conventional Medicine

  Conventional medicine Naturopathic medicine
Mind, body and spirit Separate entity Unified one
Consider human as A machine  Microcosm(universe)
Disease due to Infection or organ defect System imbalance
Role of medicine Fight infection/combat disease by suppressing symptoms Restore harmony, which disappears the symptom
Treatment focus Matters- parts or organs Energy-holistic (whole)
treatments Correct the part/organ Promote self-healing
Primary interventions Drugs or surgery Diet,exercise,herbal medicine and manipulation
Treatment purpose Just sick care Total health care


Naturopathic doctors are dedicated to:

  • Addressing thecentral causes of health problems, not just the symptoms.
  • Supporting the body’s natural healing ability.
  • Using the safest, most effective medicines available.
  • Looking at all characteristics of a person — physical, mental, emotional and spiritual.
  • Preventing diseases.
  • Prescribing pharmaceutical drugs only when absolutely necessary.


  1. BOTANICAL MEDICINE uses plant parts as remedies. This may include the regular use of pure herbal tinctures, capsules or teas to treat conditions and encourage health.
  2. Homeopathy is based on the notion that the constituent that causes an illness’s symptoms for a healthy person will treat that illness in sick people. Super-diluted medicines are created using plant, mineral and/or animal substances and are prepared with each patient’s individual needs in mind.
  3. Traditional Chinese Medicine is a therapy focused on different techniques to increase the flow of chi (vital energy) and stimulate chi pathways, also known as meridians.
  4. Hydrotherapy is just healing with water. This doesn’t only include colonics but also taking baths in alkalized water and other procedures.
  5. Mind-Body Medicine takes into account the mental, social, psychological and spiritual connection to the physical body during a journey of healing. This can include focusing constant feelings of anger, guilt or sorrow, as well as focusing on the present moment.
  6. Physical Medicine includes therapeutic exercise and massage, meditation and yoga.
  7. Lifestyle & Diet Counseling is an important facet to a naturopath’s cure, assumed that they don’t just monitor the physical dynamics of the body. Counseling may include ways to decrease stress and manage time, and how to efficiently incorporate all the recommended healthy practices on a day-to-day basis. Reiki derives from Japanese words rei, which means “boundless and universal,” and ki, which means “vital life energy force.” The naturopath uses what is called a “laying on of hands” technique that means to balance the ki of that person.
  8. Auricular Medicine  uses the ear as medium to recognize imbalances in the body. The naturopath uses energetic reflex techniques to identify certain points on the ear that signify which areas of the body are in need of healing.


Doctors Express Details


Doctors Express

Doctors Express What would be the first thought in any one’s mind when he/she get sick or have any slight illness?

It would be like:

  • There should be a health care facility nearby me or my house
  • I should be getting medical attention on prior basis
  • There should be no appointments
  • I don’t have to wait for my turn or most likely treated as an emergency patient
  • The fee and medications should not cost much
  • Seems a fantasy or dream, right!

But in 1970 United States had established a first urgent medical care facility or doctors express which dealt walk-in patients who require care but were not in serious or life-threatening condition. Later on, for Urgent Care Association of America (UCAOA) and the American Academy of Urgent Care Medicine (AAUCM) established criteria for urgent care service (UCS) provides physicians. The criteria for facility and doctors were very simple such as:

  • Must accept every walk-in patient
  • Treat a broad spectrum of illnesses and injuries
  • Perform minor medical procedures
  • Should be a licensed physician
  • Remain open for whole week
  • Have diagnostic equipment such as X-Ray, USG etc.
  • Facility should have various examination rooms

Further, in 2006, the mentioned association started one-yearfellowship or postdoctoral training program on urgent care services which further boost up the activity of provision of urgent care services to every walk-in patients even having no life threatening issue. The urgent care services were made physically successful when an American based medical institutionAmerican Family Care started their urgent care services 30 years ago with the name Urgent Care. Their mission isproviding non-emergency services to all walk-in patients at a very low cost through expert physicians in 7 days a week without any appointments, which qualify them on the UCAOA criteria. At present AFC is running about 150 urgent care centers in the United States. With all these positive properties of urgent care services or doctors express there are slight disadvantages, which are enlisted in the table below

S. No. Advantages Disadvantages
1 Patient is attended without an appointment i.e. on walk-in basis UCS does not provide any lifesaving care or emergency life-saving treatment
2 Easily accessible and can be visited on weekends It is impossible to visit the same physician every time at USC
3 Patients have to give less time on waiting and more time on medical care by the service provider Patients previous records would be an issue while visiting urgent care service resulting in limitations to one’s medical care
4 Many UCS have diagnostic equipment’s available such as lab tests, x-rays etc. During care being provided at UCS if one’s situation got worse, there are no emergency services
5 The UCS are very low cost for any treatments and as compare to the emergency services The UCS are not opened for 24 hours a day

Despite some disadvantages, doctors  had gained popularity among communities in most countries of Europe and especially in the US in a result of which it is trending everywhere nowadays.


Orthodontist Information



Orthodontics is the subdivision of dentistry that adjusts jaws and teeth that technology, inappropriately. Curved teeth and teeth that do not fit together in a correct manner are difficult to keep tidy; they are in jeopardy of being lost soon due to periodontal disease and tooth decay, and results in extra stress on the chewing muscles that can lead to headaches, TMJ syndrome and neck, back pain and shoulder pain. Teeth that are crooked or are not in the correct position can also take away from one’s appearance. The benefits of treatment by orthodontist are a healthier mouth, a more appealing look, and teeth that are more expected to last an extended period. They receive two or more than two years of education as well as four years in the school of dentistry in the orthodontic training program which must be ADA approved.


  orthodontist dentist
Five years training of dentistry in university Yes yes
Three years specialist training in orthodontics from university Yes No
Specializes in treatment and diagnosis of alignment of teeth through the use of latest technology , Yes They may offer other options like Invisalign
Discusses problems due to misalignment like tooth wear or headache Yes Only to limited extent
Takes further training in latest technologies in orthodontics Yes No
General dentistry like fillings, hygiene and check-ups No Yes
Tooth extraction No Yes
Cosmetic dentistry like veneers or bleaching No yes


Education Required


Undergraduate degree in Doctor of Dental Science through the completion of whole four years of study at a registered dental school; and  orthodontics residency
Certification and Licensing Licensing is mandatory in all states of country; board certification in orthodontics may or may not  be essential
Estimated growth in job About 18.3 %
Mean annual income 221390 dollars
Job satisfaction Almost average


  • Overbite, also known as  “buck teeth” — where the front teeth on upper end lie overlyfaraway&forward (stick out) over the lower end of teeth
  • Under bite —it is a “bulldog” appearance , here the bottom end of  teeth are too far forward and/ or the upper end of teeth are too far back
  • Cross bite — when the top end of teeth do not come down slightly in front of the lower end of  teeth when eaten together
  • Open bite — it is space between the surfaces of biting of the front or side teeth when the back teeth are bitten together
  • Misplaced midline— when the middle of your upper end or front teeth does not line up with the center of your lower or front teeth
  • Spacing — gaps, or spaces, in between the teeth due to missing teeth or the teeth that do not fills the mouth
  • Crowding — when there are too many teeth for the dental crest to lodge


It includes fixed appliances:

  • Braces —braces include wire, brackets and bands.
  • Select fixed appliances — used to regulate tongue thrusting or thumb sucking
  • Fixed space maintainers — if a tooth of the baby is lost impulsively, a space maintainer is consumed to keep the area exposed until the permanent tooth break out.


Orthopedic Surgeon Latest Informations


Orthopedic Surgeon

The musculoskeletal system (bone and muscles) of human body plays the most important role in physical activities and stable body structure. Whenever something happens to this system and first medication fails to treat then we have a specialist surgeon known as an ‘Orthopedic Surgeon”. Like all other medical terms, Ortho is also a Greek word which means correct, straight or upright. There are many complications and conditions either surgical or non-surgical in which orthopedic surgeon play their important role, mainly are as follows:

  • Sports Injuries such as straightforward and compound fractures or tendon and muscle tear
  • Arthritis
  • Osteoporosis
  • Severe infections related to bones, muscles, ligament and tendon
  • Spine disorders
  • Congenital Anomalies
  • Musculoskeletal cancer or tumors
  • Joint Dislocation
  • Straightforward and compound fractures
  • Muscle rupture or tendon or ligament tear
  • Cerebral Palsy

Such many procedures cannot be done by specializing in only general orthopedic surgery after graduation in medical sciences but by further choosing the particular orthopedic courses such as:

Foot and Ankle Surgery,

S. No. Specialty Course Description
1 General Orthopedic Surgery A general surgery related to diagnosis and treatment of superficial and deep traumas, straightforward and compound fractures
2 Arthroscopic Surgery Surgical diagnostics or sometimes treatments of joint involving minimum trauma
3 Hand Surgery As the name indicates, a kind of surgery related to hands involving its muscles, nerves, ligaments, tendons and skeletal structure
4 That sort of surgery really relates to sports injuries including fractures, sprains, and inflammation
5 Joint Replacement Surgical treatment of replacing damaged joints (hip, knee, shoulder, TMJ) with artificial ones
6 Pediatric The surgery done on neonates and infants regarding their congenital anomalies such as extra figure or cranial surgeries
7 Musculoskeletal Oncology A surgery related to diagnosis and treatment of benign as well as malignant tumors in adult as well as in children
8 Spine related treatments Surgery, treatment, and diagnosis related to our spine such as sciatica, herniated discs, compressions or stenosis etc.
9 Replacement and reconstructive surgery The type of surgeries related to bones which are crushed or unable to calcify or heal, like demur replacement surgery, elbow reconstruction etc.
10 SEM (Sports and Exercise Medicine) A study related to the sports fitness and preventing from getting injured
11 Shoulder and Elbow Study related to treatment and diagnosis of shoulder joint, muscles and elbow area of the body including related nerves, ligaments, and tendons such as frozen shoulder, shoulder joint disorder, fractures etc.


Here are some meaningful terms used in these surgeries

S. No. Term Meaning
1 Minescectomy Removal of cartilage or joint
2 Chondroplasty Surgery of cartilage-like knee or thyroid
3 Laminectomy / Laminotomy Spinal surgery for removal of complete lamina/removal of partial lamina
4 Debridement Surgical removal of dead or infected tissues
5 Arthroplasty Remodeling and replacement of joints
6 Rheumasurgery Surgery  for treatment of rheumatic fever
7 Arthritis Disorder of joints due to breakdown of joint cartilage


Orthopedic Surgery is a vast subject which covers the major part of our body and is find in every practice either it is family medicine, sports medicine or general practice.


Eye Doctor latest Information


Eye Doctor

Eyes are counted as the most important and complex organ of the body which enables us the power of vision. The primary function of any eye is to detect whether the surrounding is in light or dark. However, human eye contains many features providing view and focusing on the major one. With such sensitivity and complexity in a human eye, comes diseases and problems which are then treated by the eye doctor.

Whenever we heard about an eye doctor various professional terms came in our mind such as:




Eye etc. generally …..

Well talking to the eye doctor or ECP (Eye Care Profe refer to many kinds of professionals treating your various eye problems, from vocational training to post specialization after their medical degree.

S.No. Types of Eye Doctor Description
1 Ophthalmologist


A medical doctor who further specializes in the medical and surgical treatment of eye problems is known to be the ophthalmologist or also called eye surgeon. The doctor is more likely to be called surgeon instead of physicians, that’s why most of these professionals are known to be good doctors than doctors.
2 Othoptist A trained professional who deals with the alignment, condition, and coordination of the eyes is an orthoptist. In most of the surgical cases being performed by the ophthalmologist, the orthoptist act as an assistant for the treatment.
3 Ocularist Ever heard of a person who has the artificial or fabricated eye, such process is done and manages by an ocularist who perform the prosthesis of that person who lost their real eye and uses plastic for aesthetic purpose.
4 Optometrist Optometry is a medical specialty which involves diagnosis and examination of impaired vision due to various abnormalities and diseases. The word optometrist came from an instrument known as “optometer” which was used to assess visual defects.
5 Optician A professionally trained person who on the prescription of an optometrist and ophthalmologist make spectacles and contact lenses is called optician.
6 Oculist This an old term used for the eye professionals or eye doctors which are now categorized into an ophthalmologist and an optometrist
7 Vision Therapist Likewise other therapists, vision therapists treats or develops correct visual abilities in patients who are diagnosed with such issues or had repeated eye surgeries. Most likely orthoptist or optometrist are referred to the vision therapist.


There are many terms used for the eye and eye diseases in medical sciences the meaning of which vary from one another, some words with meaning are given below:

S. No. Parts Meaning/Description
1 Cornea Clear Layer of your Eye
2 Dilated The enlargement of Pupils
3 Pupils Round dark center of the iris of eye
4 Iris Colored Ball surrounding pupil
5 Ocular Related to your eye
6 Retina The layer that lines back of your eye
7 Sclera The outer coat of your eyeball
8 Cataract Lens membrane in the eyeball
9 Glaucoma An eye disease causing abnormal increase flow of eye fluid
10 Myopia Nearsightedness or patient cannot see or focus far placed objects





Lice Eggs Details & Information


Lice Eggs

The term LICE give us goose bumps weather we are talking about the history of district “LICE” of Diyarbakir province, Turkey or the insect “LICE” in our head. Well, we will be further talking about the second one the insect. The world lice are the plural of Louse which is a parasitic insect with no wings and is mainly infested warm blood living beings. The field related to the learning of these type of insects is called parasitology which is a branch of medical sciences which concern with the study of parasites. Parasites are those organisms which live and sustain on other organisms. Similarly, House supports by sucking the blood of their host. Lice Eggs

There are three stages of a house which are:

  1. Lice Eggs
  2. Nymph
  3. Adult louse

These eggs are also known to be nuts which are usually laid at the shaft of hair just nearby the scalp as it is the warmer part. These nits are difficult to identify through your eyes as they are minuscule in size, oval in shape and have variation in colors from grayish white to dark brown. There are mainly three types of these parasites found in three different areas of the human body:

  1. Head
  2. Body
  3. Pubic Area

With the area separate the form and shape of nits are also distinct from each other however the most common type of nits or louse is the head louse or head nits. The adult female louse is known to lay about 300 nits or eggs at a time, and these nits take 8-10 days for hatching into lice having a life of further 30 days approximately. Most often these nits are difficult to differentiate from dandruff but here are some properties that may help in differentiating within these two:

1 Nits are eggs of parasitic organism came from louse which is caused mainly by contact with infected person Caused by either dry skin, allergies to products or some skin infections such as eczema, dermatitis, etc.
2 These cannot be removed easily from the hair Can quickly fell out from your hair and scalp
3 They are usually present at shaft of hair near to scalp It can be present at any area of hair and scalp
4 While brushing or combing, your hair nits remain intact with the hair Dandruff fall out from hair every time you brush or comb your hair
5 Nits have a particular size oval shape It has no particular shape or size

With all mentioned differences there is one thing which is common in both, and that is itching in the scalp. There are various methods to treat nits but none will give 100% results, out of those most common methods used are:

  • Special nit combs (consist of fine bristles)
  • Ethyl Alcohol
  • Removal of all hair
  • Hot water treatment
  • Chemical oils and lotions
  • Herbal products
  • Crotamiton (Allopathic cream )
  • Washing clothes and towel in hot water
  • Disposal of affected garments, bed sheets, combs and towels

Common terminologies used regarding nits, lice eggs 

S. No. Terminology Description
1  Phthiraptera Order or group of species from which louse belongs
2 Pediculosis Infestation of lice in human body
3 Typhus Fever Fever, rashes and itching due to lice and nits
4 Infestation Attack of one organism on other to make it host
5 Nymph Immature louse



Ear Nose and Throat Doctor Details


Ear Nose and Throat Doctor

The doctor who treats the diseases of Ear Nose and Throat doctor is known as Otorhinolaryngologist and the study is known as Otorhinolaryngology. Commonly these doctors are referred to as ENT doctors or ENT specialists. They mainly focus on treatment of diseases of the ear, nose, throat, base of skull ,larynx etc.

Education Required for Ear Nose and Throat Doctor

After completing Medical School, a residency of 5 years is required to become an otorhinolaryngologist. Out of these five years, 6 months are given to general surgery and the remaining four and half years are focused on ear, nose, throat surgery. After completing the residency, some otorhinolaryngologist completes a year or two years long advanced sub-specialty fellowship.

S.No. Title Education/Degree Time for training
1. Doctor/General Physician MBBS/MD


5 Years



2. Otorhinolaryngologist/

ENT Specialist

ENT  Surgical Residency 5 Years



3. ENT Consultant Advanced sub-speciality Fellowship 2 Years




Sub Specialties of ENT:

There are many sub-specialities of ENT which an Otorhinolaryngologist can join.For this 2 more years are required after the ENT surgical residency.

The sub-specialities are described below.

S.No. Sub- Speciality Description
1. Head and Neck Oncologic Surgery



It deals with the surgical treatment of tumors, benign or malignant in the head and neck region.




It deals with diagnosis and treatment (medicinal or surgical) of diseases of the ear.





It deals with diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders of the ear.



Rhinology and Sinus Surgery



It deals with diagnosis and treatment (medicinal or surgical) of a nose and the sinuses.


Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology



It deals with diagnosis and treatment of diseases in children related to ear, nose, throat.


Laryngology and Voice Disorders



It deals with management and treatment of diseases of throat and voice disorders

7. Facial plastic and reconstructive surgery


It deals with surgery of face and neck either functional or for enhanced esthetics.
8. Sleep Medicine It deals with the treatment of sleep disorders.


9. Allergy It deals with the treatment of allergies that are affecting the upper respiratory tract.




The different instruments used in ENT and their functions are as follows,

S.No. Name of Instrument Functions
1 Head Mirror Reflected light is produced by head mirror which aids in the examination of cavities of the ear, nose, throat.


2 Lack’s spatula Tongue depressor for examination of the oral cavity.


3 Tooth forcep To hold skin.


4 Tonsillar disector Used for dissection and retraction.


5 Laryngoscope Used for examination of larynx.


6 Oesophagoscope Used in diagnosis or treatment during oesophagoscopy.


7 Electrical Otoscope For examination of tympanic membranes in case of perforation of honeycombing.


8 Negus Knot Tyer Helps in tying of ligature knot.


9 Denis brown’s – Tonsil holding forceps To hold tonsils during tonsillectomy.
10 Frer’s Septal Knife Used for incision of the mucosa over deviated septum.


11 Myringotome Used for incision of the tympanic membrane.


12 Luc’s Forceps ·         For nasal polypectomy.

·         For taking biopsies from the oropharynx and oral cavity.

·         Substitute for tonsil holding forceps.


13 Posterior rhinoscopy mirror To see

·         Eustachian tube opening and adenoids.

·         Posterior nasal apertures.

·         Posterior free part of the nasal septum.

14 Crocodile Forceps Used in taking biopsies.


15 Eve’s Tonsillar snare Used to crush and cut the lower pedicle of the tonsil.


16 Indirect Laryngoscope Used to see the base of the tongue.


17 Killian’s long bladed nasal speculum Used in septoplasty.
18 Doyen’s mouth gag For keeping the mouth open during intraoral surgery.


19 Jobson’s aural probe Used for cleaning ear canal.


20 Mastoid retractor Used in Mastoidectomy.


21 Mallet ·         To open mastoid antrum.

·         To remove chips of bone.

22 Tilley’s harpoon Used in Intra-nasal antrostomy.


23 Thudicam’s nasal speculum To see the nasal cavity.
24 Towel clip To fix towel, suction tube etc.